Tag Archives: Natural History

Plants of the Bodie Hills, 2022 Edition

Last year I thought there would be few changes or additions needed in this year’s edition of Plants of the Bodie Hills. Surely, after all these years, it should be very nearly finished. Wrong! Local floras like this are never, ever complete or finished, but over time, if there are no deadlines, they can become gradually more complete, even during periods of drought.

Plants of the Bodie Hills, March 2022 Edition, is now available on the Downloads page (a free PDF). It includes quite a few additions, corrections, nomenclatural updates, and refinements to the keys.

  • New or confirmed additions to the flora include Artemisia dracunculus, Tricardia watsonii, Orthocarpus luteus, Erythranthe floribunda, Plantago major, Toxicoscordion venenosum, Danthonia unispicata, and an unidentified Aphyllon. Three more additions that are barely on the edge of the Bodie Hills, since they are in the drawdown zone on the east edge of Bridgeport Reservoir, are Potentilla newberryi, Potentilla rivalis, and Crypsis alopecuroides. I’ve found a few of these myself, but most of these additions are the result of explorations in the field by others, particularly Ann Howald, and others posting observations on iNaturalist.
  • Taxonomy for the Order Boraginales has been updated: instead of the whole order being dumped into one very large and diverse Family Boraginaceae (in the broad sense), a newer 11-family system has been proposed by the Boraginales Working Group, and numerous updates to genera and species in western North America have been made by the Amsinckiinae Working Group. These changes have been adopted by the Jepson eFlora. Three of the 11 families are known to occur in the Bodie Hills: Boraginaceae (in the strict sense), Hydrophyllaceae, and Namaceae. A fourth, Heliotropiaceae, is likely to turn up one of these days.
  • Some of the keys have been improved (hopefully) by the addition of more distinguishing characters, or by the addition of species that are not in the Bodie Hills, but may be familiar to readers and are easily confused with species that do occur here.
  • The table listing Special-Status plants has been updated based on the most recent sources. There is still only one California State-listed Rare plant in the Bodie Hills: Long Valley milkvetch (Astragalus johannis‐howellii). No federally-listed plants occur here.

As before, you have two options for how to use this document: 1) load the PDF onto a mobile device or 2) print the PDF yourself.

  1. Using a mobile device: I’ve found the PDF to be quite readable on my iPhone (in the Books app), although it helps that I’m near-sighted. It’s even easier to read on an iPad, other tablet, or laptop.
  2. Printing the PDF: You can print the PDF yourself or at a local print shop, and I highly recommend printing it 2-sided to conserve paper and reduce bulk and weight in the field. A comb or spiral binding, binder clip, or other binding will hold it together.

Your additions, corrections, comments, or questions are always welcome.

Here are some interesting observations I made in 2021 while roaming the Bodie Hills:

Penstemon palmeri, near Aurora
Aphyllon sp. (fresh material needed to identify), near Aurora
Rhinotropis (=Polygala) intermontana, north of Masonic
Eriogonum nutans var. nutans, north of Masonic
Toxicoscordion venenosum, at a meadow in Bridgeport Canyon
Eriogonum alexanderae, near Red Wash Creek
Eriogonum rupinum, near Red Wash Creek
Asclepias crypyoceras, in Del Monte Canyon
Salvia dorrii, in Del Monte Canyon
Cryptantha pterocarya, in Del Monte Canyon

Copyright © Tim Messick 2022. All rights reserved.

Plants of the Bodie Hills, 2021 Edition!

Cover of the March 2021 edition of Plants of the Bodie Hills

The 2021 edition of Plants of the Bodie Hills is now available as a free PDF on the Downloads page.

This new edition is at last more of a proper “Flora” than an “Annotated Checklist,” because it now includes keys to all of the species. It includes keys to families and genera too, except for two (not so minor) exceptions: the key to dicot families (class Magnoliopsida) and the key to grass genera (family Poaceae) are still in progress. These are both very challenging technically, whether they are built up from scratch or simplified down from existing keys that encompass many more taxa in a much wider area than the Bodie Hills. I hope to add those last two keys in a future edition.

Adding numerous keys and several more species has stretched the document to 116 letter-size pages. Note that you have 2 options for how to use it: 1) load the PDF onto a mobile device or 2) print the PDF yourself.

  • Using a mobile device: I’ve found the PDF to be quite readable on my iPhone 8+ (in the Books app), although it helps that I’m near-sighted. It’s even easier to read on an iPad, other tablet, or laptop. A phone or tablet is pretty easy to carry in the field, but you may want to secure it with a lanyard or wrist strap. (Personally, I like the ones from PodFob.)
  • Printing the PDF: You can print the PDF yourself or at a local print shop, but I highly recommend printing it 2-sided to conserve paper and reduce bulk and weight in the field. A comb or spiral binding, binder clip, or other binding will hold it together.

Your additions, corrections, comments, or questions are always welcome.

Happy botanizing!

Flower field west of Lakeview Spring. Dunderberg Peak and other high Sierran summits in the distance.
Amelanchier utahensis (Utah service berry) on Masonic Mountain.

Copyright © Tim Messick 2022. All rights reserved.

Strolling around Panum Crater

Panum Crater in Google Earth

Panum Crater (foreground) and Mono Craters as seen in
Google Earth, looking southeast.

Panum Crater

One frosty morning in late October I walked around the narrow rim of Panum Crater, just south of Mono Lake. This is the youngest volcanic feature in the Mono Basin, so if you love landscapes built by fire and carved by ice, I highly recommend this hike, but do it in cool weather or very early on a summer day.

Panum Crater

Panum Crater

Panum Crater is only about 670 ±20 years old (circa 1320s to 1360s AD) (Sieh and Bursik 1986). The initial eruption was of the “Plinian” type, where abundant gases escape from the rising magma, producing a massive plume and rain of volcanic ash that may continue for weeks. (This is the same type of eruption that occurred on a larger scale at Italy’s Mt. Vesuvius in 79 AD, burying Pompeii and Herculaneum—witnessed and later described by Pliny the Younger, hence the name “Plinian.”) After the plumes of gas and ash subsided, magma welled up within Panum Crater to form a jagged dome of obsidian and pumice. Some time after the Panum Crater event, more ash fell throughout the area from eruptions several miles farther south in the Inyo Craters area.

Panum Crater

What would it have been like to see, hear, and smell this eruption, to feel the earth shake before and during the eruption? There were certainly Native Americans living here at that time — in the Mono Basin, the Bodie Hills, Bridgeport and Adobe Valleys, and on down to Owens Valley. We don’t know what time of year the eruption occurred, but there could have been groups traveling over Mono Pass and along other routes to trade with neighboring tribes when the eruption began.

Panum Crater

Laylander (1998) speculated on how earlier (ca. 880 AD) and larger Plinian eruptions in the Mono Craters may have affected local witnesses: “Local consequences for human populations from the eruption can be imagined. The event may have directly caused some loss of life or frightened the surviving witnesses into leaving the Mono Basin. The decimation of plant and animal communities may have drastically reduced the resource value of the affected area for humans for some time.” (He goes on to consider whether “an occupational hiatus, followed by a return to pre-event conditions” could be detected in the archaeological record and whether the duration of this hiatus could be estimated archaeologically. He concludes that “a hiatus of as much as a century is not likely to be detectable in the archaeological record” using hydration dating of artifacts, unless the sample size is “very large.”)

Panum Crater

Panum Crater

Banded obsidian and pumice atop the dome.

Panum Crater

Panum Crater

Panum Crater

Panum Crater is not quite the youngest cinder cone in California — that distinction may belong to Cinder Cone in Lassen Volcanic National Park, which erupted about 300 years later, circa 1650. And Lassen Peak itself erupted last in 1915.

References:
Laylander, D. 1998, Cultural Hiatus and Chronological Resolution: Simulating the Mono Craters Eruption of ca. A.D. 880 in the Archaeological Record, Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology 11:148-154.

Sieh, K. and M. Bursik 1986. Most recent eruption of the Mono Craters, eastern central California. Journal of Geophysical Research, 91(B12): 12,539–12,571.


Copyright © Tim Messick 2020. All rights reserved.
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